Four Fingered Robotic Arm Project

This paper deals with the design, construction, analysis and control of a multi
figured humanoid robotic hand. It uses a very effective mechanism .The
mechanism has a revolute joints to provide different kind o motion to the links The mechanism consists of springs so that the weight of the system is balanced by these springs this reduces the torque required for the motion of the robot .Th mechanism used for the fabrication of the robot are mainly PERSPEX and WOOD because of their light weight.
The robot uses the Japanese futaba servo motors for motion of links. The
robot consists of four servo motors of the rating 6V and torque 3 kg-cm. The
robotic hand can be controlled by both the computer and the micro controller.
The robot is controlled in two ways Manual and Automatic. The robot
picks the object with the help of software program made in Visual Basic .Net.
The control software consists of a GUI (Graphical User Interface) designed in
Visual Basic .Net. The software provides the large flexibility in controlling the
robotic hand.

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thesis on Adaptive Power and Rate Control in Third GenerationWideband CDMA Mobile Systems

This thesis proposes novel adaptive power control and rate change schemesand investigates the performance of a Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA)system in conjunction with these adaptive techniques. In these schemes, the transmit power and rate are adapted to the variations of the fading channel using adaptivethresholds based on the probability distribution function (pdf) of the predicted mobilechannel power values.We define a policy similar to the traditional power control technique withthresholds except that the thresholds are set based on several regions of operation in ourAdaptive Transmitter Power Control (TPC) and Adaptive Seamless Rate Change (SRC)schemes. These regions are defined by means of the probability distribution function(pdf) of the total average channel power. The pdf is initially constructed based on thehistory of the predicted channel power values derived from the long-range predictionalgorithm. These regions can be defined such that the system operates at a constant ratioof energy per bit over noise power.In a 1-user model with one channel path, the pdf of the channel power would bean exponential or chi-square function with 2 degrees of freedom. However, in a W-CDMAsystem, normally the rake receiver has several fingers. That is, at the receiver,the system either estimates or predicts the channel coefficients at each rake finger andperforms maximal ratio combining by multiplying each finger with its conjugate or chooses the ones with the highest energy and performs maximal ratio combining on theselected fingers.In a two-user system where the multi-access interference is modeled as theStandard Gaussian Approximation (SGA), the system performance and error probabilityof our W-CDMA system becomes similar to the one for our one-user system.Consequently, in a single user detector system, when all users adopt a similar policy fortheir adaptive power and rate control, the average total Multi-Access Interference (MAI)will be reduced. The resulting channel capacity of the system in this case will beincreased and the system may operate in a lower transmit power level.We evaluate the performance of these schemes using a detailed block diagramsimulation of a W-CDMA system. We model and simulate all major components of thesystem including an accurate model for realistic mobile channels. We present simulationresults to verify that the proposed novel schemes are superior to the traditionalapproaches for transmitter power control and rate change. Furthermore, our simulationresults show that our proposed techniques reduce the effect of Multi Access Interferencein a multi-user system.

Download full thesis From following Link:
Wideband CDMA Mobile Systems.pdf


The future tactical ocean environment will be increasingly complicated. In addition to traditional communication links there will be a proliferation of unmanned vehicles in space, in the air, on the surface, and underwater. To effectively utilize these systems improvements in underwater communication systems are needed. Since radio waves do not propagate in sea water, and acoustic communication systems are relatively low bandwidth the possibility of high speed underwater optical communication systems are considered.

In traditional communication systems, constructing a link budget is often relatively straight forward. In the case of underwater optical systems the variations in the optical properties of ocean water lead to interesting problems when considering the feasibility and reliability of underwater optical links. The main focus of this thesis is to understand how to construct an underwater link budget which includes the effects of scattering and absorption of realistic ocean water.

The secondary focus of the thesis was to construct LED based optical communication systems. This required understanding the behavior of Gallium Nitride LEDs operated under intense electrical pulsing conditions. An optical FM wireless system was constructed for transmitting speech. An LED based Ethernet compatible digital communications system that was capable of operating at 10 Mbps was also constructed and packaged for underwater operation.

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Holographic Information Systems Thesis:

The goal of this work is to investigate the use of holographic techniques for information processing and transmission systems. Until recently information has been processed and transmitted mainly electronically. With the advent of optical fiber communications the monopoly of electronics has receded in the telecommunications field, but the domain of information processing is still dominated by electronic processors.
This thesis follows a top-down approach to the design of processors that integrate both electronic and optical components. It begins with the design considerations of a compact, rapidly reconfigurable opto-electronic processor, which possesses an optical bus in addition to the traditional electronic bus. The optical bus takes advantage of the massive parallelism that is afforded by optics and can be coupled to a holographic digital memory, allowing rapid reconfiguration of the device. The capability of rapid reconfiguration gives rise to a new computational paradigm, where the reprogramming of the device can become part of the computation. We suggest additional applications of this processor, namely as a smart reading head for large scale holographic disk memories. Finally we present novel algorithms that were developed specifically to take advantage of the additional capabilities of our processor. The next section is concerned with the wavelength and angular tuning of strong volume holograms, both in the reflection and 90-degree geometries. Since photons have no charge, we need to rely on their wave properties to manipulate them, both for long-range transmission, such as telecommunications, and short-range transmission, such as on chip interconnects. In this section we investigate how volumeholograms can be used to selectively redirect information bearing light beams.

The final part of this thesis is concerned with material issues. Holographic recording of strong volume gratings is one of the most commonly used approaches, and photorefractive materials have a strong bearing on the overall performance of the final system.

For Full Thesis Download:
Holographic Information System.pdf

An Impulse Generator Simulation Circuit

This thesis describes the creation of a simulation circuit to match the output of a Marx type Impulse Generator. The goal was to estimate the stray capacitance and insert that capacitance into the simulation circuit to effectively produce an output similar to that of the generator. An actual three-stage impulse generator was used as the base. Several different levels of impulse voltage were tested, and the output waveforms were captured. Research was conducted to formulate the stray capacitance and identify the locations of these capacitances in the generator itself. The simulation circuit was then subjected to several iterations, adjusting the capacitance values to attain an output as close as possible to that of the actual generator.
Conclusions of the research indicate that an effective simulation circuit can be created to give an output that is close to, but not exactly that of, the actual generator. In the research, several areas of error were identified in the actual generator that were not present in the simulation circuit. These areas are discussed in the thesis.

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In all semiconductor laser diodes the thermal, electrical, and optical characteristics are integrally related. In this work, a new approach to the modeling of laser diodes that integrates electrical, optical and thermal effects is presented. Also, it is demonstrated how physical device models based on complex differential equations can be easily implemented in the object oriented circuit simulator f REEDATM. Implementations of a Double-Heterojunction Laser Diode (DHLD) and a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) diode are described. Simulations and results for both the DHLD and the VCSEL diodes are presented for DC, transient, and Harmonic-Balance analyses.

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There exists a need to remotely monitor fully mobile patients in their natural environments. Monitoring a patient’s biological waveforms can track a patient’s vital signs or facilitate the diagnosis of a disease, which could then be treated to help prolong and/or improve the subject’s life. If a patient must be monitored without the delay associated with delivering data stored on a recording device, biotelemetry is necessary. Biotelemetry entails transmitting biological waveforms to a remote site for recording, processing and analysis. Due to the limitations of the currently popular methods of biotelemetry, this thesis proposes the use of the increasingly prevalent cellular phone system. An adaptor design is developed to facilitate biotelemetry utilizing the most common features of a cell phone, barring the need for cell phone modification, as required for affordability. As cell phones notoriously confound sensitive medical equipment, especially patient-connected devices, their use is often distanced from sensitive equipment. However, the desire to use cell phones to transmit biological waveforms requires their joint-proximity to patient-connected devices.The adaptor must amplify the waveforms while rejecting cell phone interference to achieve an adequate signal-to-noise ratio. As the frequency range of most biological data does not conform to the passband of the phone system, the adapter must modulate the biological data. To limit the adapter’s size and weight, this design exploits the cell phone’s battery power. Methods are also introduced to receive and reconstruct high-fidelity representations of the original biological waveform.

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It seems these days that everyone has a cellular phone. Whether yours is for business purposes or personal use, you need an efficient way of charging the battery in the phone. But, like most people, you probably don’t like being tethered to the wall. Imagine a system where your cellular phone battery is always charged. No more worrying about forgetting to charge the battery. Sound Impossible?
It is the focus of this thesis to discuss the first step toward realizing this goal. A system will be presented using existing antenna and charge pump technology to charge a cellular phone battery without wires. In this first step, we will use a standard phone, and incorporate the charging technology into a commercially available base station. The base station will contain an antenna tuned to 915MHz and a charge pump. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of such a system, and hopefully pave the way for a system incorporated into the phone for charging without the use of a base station.

Through the years, technology has allowed the cellular phone to shrink not only the size of the ICs, but also the batteries. New combinations of materials have made possible the ability to produce batteries that not only are smaller and last longer, but also can be recharged easily. However, as technology has advanced and made our phones smaller and easier to use, we still have one of the original problems: we must plug the phone into the wall in order to recharge the battery. Most people accept this as something that will never change, so they might as well accept it and carry around either extra batteries with them or a charger. Either way, it’s just something extra to weigh a person down. There has been research done in the area of shrinking the charger in order to make it easier to carry with the phone. One study in particular went on to find the lower limit of charger size [1]. But as small as the charger becomes, it still needs to be plugged in to a wall outlet. How can something be called “wireless” when the object in question is required to be plugged in, even though periodically?
Now, think about this; what if it didn’t have to be that way? Most people don’t realize that there is an abundance of energy all around us at all times. We are being bombarded with energy waves every second of the day. Radio and television towers, satellites orbiting earth, and even the cellular phone antennas are constantly transmitting energy. What if there was a way we could harvest the energy that is being transmitted and use it as a source of power? If it could be possible to gather the energy and store it, we could potentially use it to power other circuits. In the case of the cellular phone, this power could be used to recharge a battery that is constantly being depleted. The potential exists for cellular phones, and even more complicated devices - i.e. pocket organizers, person digital assistants (PDAs), and even notebook computers - to become completely wireless.

For Full Report Download below:
Wireless Battery Charger.pdf

A Digital Water Level Meter

Here's an analog water level meter that uses commonly available parts. The output is a voltage that is proportional to the water level.
The monostable is a 555, eg. LM555 or NE555, or could be a ICM7555, the CMOS version of the 555 for lower power consumption. The width of the pulses out of the 555 is proportional to the water level. R7 and C5 form a low pass filter to smooth the DC value of the pulse train. Their values can be increased to lower the cutoff frequency if dynamic response is not required. The lower the cutoff frequency the more noise immunity the device will have.
The zero offset is removed in the differential stage IC1B. The LM324 is a quad op. amp. that can be used in single supply configuration. The maximum output of an LM324 is about 1.5V less than the supply voltage Vcc. The supply can be from a 3-terminal regulator eg LM7808,LM7812, LM7815 - or LM78L08, LM78L12 or LM78L15. The voltage input to one of these regulators needs to be about 2V higher than the regulated voltage. For low power applications a micropower regulator like the MAX666 could be used.

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Digital Systems & Microprocessors Project

The project will give you the opportunity to use the RTL technique for the design of a system of modest complexity: a reverse polish calculator with 4 significant decimal digits. The project has various milestones among the specifications to allow you to do a top-down design and to tackle the project at various levels of complexity with plenty of scope for individual creativity. A major aspect of the project will be to explore different approaches of developing the different hardware blocks taking special account of meeting spec and synthesis in hardware.

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Robotic Arm Project

The main objective of this project is to create the virtual representation of a robot’s working environment. This virtual space gives user the ability to test the physical system without ever having to set up the physical environment and also user can practice without having to be on site. Another benefit of using a virtual space is that we can create any representation needed for the user. To control the robot in the real world, as well as the virtual world, we use MATLAB/Simulink to numerically analyze the inverse dynamics of the system. This allows us to specify the robot’s position that we want and then calculate the joint angles that will move the robot to that desired position. The robot will be used to manipulate a set number of objects with known positions within the system, real world or virtual.

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Solar Tracking System by Microprocessor:


This project uses a stepper motor to control the position of solar energy collectors, using Intel 8085 Microp . The software includes the positioning of collectors through stepper motor & data acquisition and processing in Microprocessor.


LDR ( Light Dependent Resistance) is used as a sensor for generating an electric signal proportional to intensity of light falling on it. LDR is mounted at the focus of reflector which is directly mounted on solar energy collectors.


The stepper motor requires that its stator windings should be energized in a programmed sequence to cause the motor to run in a given direction and with a required speed.

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Robotic Project:

The Lego Mindstorms NXT has been in the market since 2006 and its potential for robotics application is increasing throughout the years. The Lego Mindstorms NXT educational kit consists of several types of sensors and motors, allowing the robot to be programmed to respond autonomously to different types of situations.

The traditional four-directional analog controller allows motion but is restricted by only the four
direction keys. The Nintendo Wii remote, which is otherwise known as the ‘Wiimote’, expands on the traditional controller by embedding an accelerometer and Infrared (IR) sensors. The accelerometer allows motion capture of the Wiimote along the XYZ axis as well as detecting the roll, yaw and pitch. Combined with the IR sensors, it allows very accurate motion tracking. With the motion tracking capability on top of the traditional controller capabilities, integrating the Wiimote to a robotics kit will allow the robot to be controlled with more finesse.

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Home Automation System with Mobile Communication and Computer Interfacing

Main Features of the projects:

The Home automation project is divided into two parts:

  1. The electrical appliances with computer parallel port interfacing
  2. The remote external on/off of the whole system

The first part contains a interfacing circuits which should be connected with the PC via a parallel port. The computer should need a high definition language such as C, C+, C++, QuickBasic, visual c, c# etc according to user’s choice. The program will define the address of the LPT port for the computer as well as function and status of the devices whether the devices are on or off.

The second part contains a setup which could turn on/off the whole system externally. Here we use cell phone as it is used widely in modern life. The setup contains a mobile set, a decoder and programmable microcontroller. The decoder will decode the signal from mobile to microcontroller and the microcontroller trigger the relay which is connected to the interfacing unit.

Objective/Task of the project:

The main objective of the project is:

· To generate and develop a circuit that will accept the signals from a computer interface via a port and control the switching of the relays which in turn will control the appliances running on mains power.

· To analyze and develop the instruction codes utilized by the interface to interact with the device using a high-level programming language.

· To design a DTMF decoder circuit which decodes the frequency of the button assigned to mobile phone.

· To connect the decoder with a PIC microcontroller and programming it with necessary condition.

· Finally Implement and combine the whole system.

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Electrical Engineering Last year Thesis/Project:

Students who studying Engineering often find it difficult to choose their final year project/thesis; and if they choose one than they often face problem to properly compose the whole project.  Considering their problems here I have posted various  projects and thesis specially for Electrical and Electronics Engineers around the world. I think these sample copies will give them proper guidelines and ideas about their own project/thesis .If students find these posts helpful than my effort will be successful. Please give your comments and reviews about this blog and also give me suggestions so that  I can improve the postings. Thanks to all.

Here I am giving a link of Format of Thesis/Project copy: